LV. 15
GP 8

【閒聊】剛考完的高三生英文總整理 樓主今年來重考了 一起加油吧!

樓主 海闊天空 afs236974
725 -
總整理到此,祝眾考生還有我都能順利金榜題名!                                                     點上面的
請點看他的文謝謝

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記得考試前去拜一拜文昌帝君~
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2015/7/20  02:33  樓主來重考了

大家一起加油吧~!

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另外我稀薄的印象中有人在系統壞掉那天要我幫忙救一下公民的政府體制跟投票問題,
小弟剛好課本有整理了一下,希望能幫上一些忙。

內閣制 總統制 雙首長制 我國雙首長制
代表國家 英國 美國 法國第五共和 中華民國
元首產生方式 世襲 各州初選,再由各州選舉人投票(勝者全拿) 人民直選(兩輪絕對多數投票制) 人民直選(單一選區相對多數)
元首 國王或女王(虛位,統而不治) 總統(實權),任期四年,連選得連任一次 總統(實權),任期五年,連選得連任一次 總統(實權),任期四年,連選得連任一次
行政首長 首相 總統 總理 行政院院長
國會 上下議院 參眾議院 參議院、國民議會 立法院
行政與立法 行政權屬內閣,立法權屬國會,兩權合一 行政權屬總統,立法權屬國會,兩權合一 行政權屬總統與內閣,立法權屬國會(總統與總理屬不同政黨時,出現左右共治的情形 行政權屬行政院,立法權屬國會,分權且制衡
內閣的產生 首相由下議院多數黨黨魁擔任,閣員由首相選任,提請元首任命 高級官員由總統提名,參議院同意後任命;其他官員逕由總統任命,內閣無閣揆 總統直接任命總理;總理提名閣員由總統任命 總統直接任命行政院院長,不須立法院同意;各部會首長由院長提請總統任命
閣員的產生 閣員議員 閣員不可兼議員 閣員不可兼議員 閣員不可兼議員
法律的制定與副署 國會制定後,由元首公布,須內閣副署 國會制定後,送請總統簽署,不須副署總統有否決權 國會制定後,送請總統公布,須內閣副署總統可要求國會覆議,必要時可訴諸公民複決 國會制定後,送請總統公布,須內閣副署,但總統任命行政院院長以及須立院同意之人事任免,以及解散立法院命令,不須內閣副署
倒閣權 國會可對內閣提出不信任案 國會對內閣與總統皆不可提出不信任案 國會可對內閣提出不信任案 國會可對內閣提出不信任案
解散國會 首相可呈請元首解散國會 總統不可解散國會 總統可以解散國會(主動) 總統可以解散國會(被)
選舉制度:
我在這邊只講聯立制跟並立制而已,主要是講他們的算法,另外其他的單記非讓渡投票制等請自行參閱課本謝
謝。

聯立制:又稱「補償式兩票制」、「混合式比例代表制」,例如德國國會。
方式:席次分配1/2採用單一選區相對數制1/2採用政黨名單比例代表制以第二票(政黨得票率)為準來決定
各政黨應得席次
政黨門檻:政黨得票率5%或區域選舉3席。(題目中若未提及此則可不予理會)

並立制:又稱「分立式兩票制」、「混合式多數決制」,例如日本眾議院。
方式:採用單一選區相對多數,按照分配席次採用政黨名單比例代表制各政黨依其政黨得票率來分配應以
政黨比例代表選出的固定名額,而與各政黨在區域選區中已當選席次多寡無關
政黨門檻:政黨得票率2%或區域選舉5席。(題目中若未提及此則可不予理會)

對不起,我知道你們一定對這些定義霧煞煞,但是我不得不提,直接丟範例給你們看就對了。

Ex:
海底王國舉行國會大選,該國國會席次一共300席,且有選舉門檻等限制。下表為各政黨的得票率,試問:
(1)若是採用聯立制,海葵黨的不分區代表席次有幾位?
(2)若是採用並立制,龍蝦黨的政黨總席次總計有幾位?

龍蝦黨 海星黨 海葵黨 海豹黨
政黨得票率 40% 20% 30%
10%
區域代表當選席次 75席 20席 50席 5席
Sol:
(1)首先可以看到有選舉門檻的限制,不過都有通過上述所提及的,所以可以忽略。
國會席次一共300席,海葵黨的政黨得票率為30%,故海葵黨在國會中一共可獲得90席(300x30%=90),
扣除在區域選舉中獲得的席次50席,海葵黨在政黨名單中應獲得40席。
(2)國會席次一共300席,有150席分配到政黨席次,150席分配到區域選舉席次,所以龍蝦黨的政黨席次有
60席[(300-150) x 40%],加上區域代表的席次有75席所以總共為135席。
基本上看到聯立制就是政黨x總席次-區域,看到並立制就是政黨x分配席次+區域

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覺得還蠻沉重的影片  一樣有英文字幕
希望各位滿18歲的駕駛們都該注意不要造成自己與他人的遺憾
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發現大家的英文好像都是罩門........
十個有七八個都是英文要怎麼讀ㄝ

其實我個人是認為英文要靠平常的大量閱讀跟聽才能有成長
而不是一直去背單字跟文法  因為語言是活的  你死背會讓他過於僵化不會應用
我學英文都是去看小說  看雜誌  看科學期刊   都是英文滿滿的躺在那邊
還有網路上的Teens react  看影片學英文那些都可以好好利用
但就是因為這樣  我閱讀才會很快抓到重點  我有語感   我單字量夠
只是現在是學測  要考試  我就幫你們準備跟整理比較常考的題型而已
要真正提升英文能力還是就上述的方法
希望學弟妹真的想要好好學英文就多多加油吧~!

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我是把我寫的題本的文法還蠻重要的抓出來
所以就多來看看吧~  可能就幾天更新一次這樣
單字上網找一下4500單字就會跑出來了
要打的話真的太多了= =

推薦這個東西

另外新增一些題本的選擇題  把不會的單字整理起來多背一下囉~!
直接ctrl+f 打選擇題跳到最下面寫吧
每天都會更新一下

索引目錄:(請配合Ctrl+F謝謝)
  • 句型文法
  • 轉折語用法
  • 關代用法
  • 選擇題題目
  • 片語
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句型文法
1.
cannot(help)but +v= cannot help+ Ving = have/has no choice but to V    忍不住,不得不
Ex :
Most people cannot (help) but cry after reading this famous story.
The exhausted student cannot help dozing off in class. (doze off 打瞌睡)

2. take sth into consideration  列入考慮
這邊可能要注意下主動被動的用法  做一下比較:
Ex :
When applying to a university, we should take our interests and our future into
consideration.
In light of government policy, how to increase birth rate should be taken into
consideration. (In light ofN  ...而言)

3. some... , and others  v.s  some of... , and the others  有些...,有些...
of +the
Ex:
At a theme park, some of my classmates ride roller coasters, and the others ride
Ferris wheel.  (roller coasters 雲霄飛車  Ferris wheel 摩天輪)
In the classroom, some students are studying, and others are sleeping.

4. instead of + Ving / N  而不是,取代
Ex:  
Instead of studying abroad,Steven decided to attend the domestic graduate school.
(Steven沒有出國,反而決定讀國內的研究所。)

5. It seems that s+v / S seems to + v  看起來似乎(一個名詞字句一個不定詞)
Ex:
It seems that they are going to give up this project.
= The project seems to be given up by them.

6. as ... adj./adv.  ... as  ...一樣
Ex:
He is not as talkative as his elder brother. ( talkative 健談的)

7. Not only ... but(also) 後面的動詞時態要跟but also後面的主詞作呼應
Ex:  Not only you but (also) my sister looks forward to The Walking Dead.
Ex:  Not only my brother but also I am looking for my Nokia cellphone.
同時也有倒裝的用法
Ex:  Not only does breakfast give you energy to start a new day , but it benefits you a lot , including performance improvement and weight control.
還原原句為 : Breakfast not only gives you energy to start a new day , but it benefits you a
lot , including performance improvement and weight control.
主要是看後面的動詞時態  然後再往前面去選
同時是對稱  現在式對現在式  動詞對動詞

8.
sb. spend(spent) 金錢/時間 +ving / on N  某人花金錢/時間做某事/在某物
sth. cost(sb.) 金錢/ take(sb.)時間   某物花了(某人)多少錢or時間
It cost (sb.) 金錢/take (sb.)時間 to V  (某人)花錢/時間做.....
Ex: Susan spent two hundred dollars buying a cup of coffee /on a cup of coffee.
    = The coffee cost Susan two hundred dollars.
    = It cost Susan two hundred dollars to buy a cup of coffee.
Ex: I spent two days finishing this novel/on this novel.
    = This novel took me two days.
    = It took me two days to finish this novel.

9.
S has/have + p.p  since +過去時間/過去式子句  (since ten years ago / since he was five.)
S has /have + p.p   for + 一段時間
Ex: 1. He has practiced dancing for several hours.
       2. He has practiced dancing since he was three years old.

10. had better (not) +v    最好(不要).....
Ex:
You had better not fight against those who want to hurt you. Call the police and ask your friends for help.

11. Ving / To v ...... Be V / V  動名詞/不定詞當主詞用法  
Ex: 1. Being polite and humble is what a good student has to do.
      2. Driving carefully and checking everything in your car keep you safe.

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12. to one's delight(高興) / surprise / regret ...  令人...的是  (後面都是接名詞)
情緒的表達類都可以用,要增強表達程度的強烈可以用much,或是情緒名詞前加上great
Ex:
Much to our regret, our homeroom teacher will retire this year.
To my great delight,I can go to the Disneyland with my best friends this summer.

13.as long as S +V  只要...     這句話的後面是要接子句
Ex:
As long as you work hard, you will achieve your goal.

14. the way S +V...  ......的方式
可以當作主詞、受詞或是補語。另外V要搭配前後的時態使用,兩者要一致
Ex:
I don't like the way you talk to me.
The way she looked at me made me uncomfortable.

15. not(never) ... until ... 直到...
Not until連用擺在一起會形成倒裝句。
倒裝句的說明在18.
Ex:
I didn't come home until I finished my job.
=Not until I finished my job did I come home.
助動詞要提出來擺到主詞的前面。

16. such as / like  例如,像......     v.s  for example / for instance
前者不可以接句子而後者可以接句子
Ex:
Sports such as basketball or volleyball need very tall players.
My friends always give me a hand when I have trouble; for instance, they will teach me
how to improve my academic performance.

17. in addition to Ving/ N  除了...
可以跟besides通用,文意相通。
Ex:
In addition to taking/ Besides the plane, the high-speed railroad is also a choice.

18. Under no circumstances ...  在任何情況下都不會,絕不
放句首的話這句型需要倒裝,因為它有否定的意思,與否定副詞hardly, scarcely 等字的原理相同。
倒裝的原理就是類似疑問句的排列順序,助動詞或be 動詞出現在主詞之前
Ex:
Under no circumstances will we sign the contract.

19. so adj. / adv. that S+V  ...以至於
相信這是大家國中耳熟能詳的文法之一,也可以使用such (a) adj. +N that S+V 的寫法。
Ex:
This man is so bossy(蠻橫的) that no one likes him.
=He is such a bossy man that no one likes him.
He runs so fast that nobody can't follow him.
=He is such a fast boy that nobody can't follow him.

20. No matter how adj. / adv. , S+V  無論多麼...
除了這個句型以外,尚有:No matter + who (無論誰) / what(無論甚麼) / when(無論何時) / where(
論何地) /which(無論哪一個),視題意而做選擇。
Ex:
No matter how difficult the task is, I am determined to fulfill(完成) it.
No matter what you say, I don't believe it.
(文意為不管你說什麼,所以使用what。注意No matter的用法都必須接疑問詞,不能單獨使用)

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21. watch / see/ hear /feel +O +V / Ving  / p.p 感官動詞
此時的感官動詞當及物動詞,之後V時,通常指整體的動作或狀態Ving,則是強調正在進行的動作,若
p.p時,則是指受詞被動的狀態。除了上述幾個外也有noticeobserve等。
考試的時候通常不會出VVing放在一起選,會從中選其中一個跟p.p去做比較看哪個符合文意。
Ex:
Last Friday, I watched some legislators fighting in the Legislative Yuan on TV, and I
decided that I would not vote for any of them in the next election. (上禮拜五,我從電視上看
到了立法委員在立法院裡打架,我就決定下次選舉時不會投票給其中任何一個人。)強調正在打架

22. not so much A as B 與其說是A,不如說是B
B才是強調的重點,也就是句型的重點在於後面
Ex:
Ms.Lee is not so much a professional counselor as a good friend.
=Ms. Lee is a good friend rather than a professional counselor.
(與其說Ms.Lee是專業諮商員,不如說她是位好朋友。)

★★★23.   很多
a (great) number of / numbers of, numerous, a few , scores of + 可數N
a (good) deal of, much, an amount of /amounts of, a little +不可數N
a lot of , plenty of 兩者皆可
Ex:
This world-famous cooking contest has attracted ___ cooks to join.
(A) a great deal of  (B) amounts of  (C) a little  (D) numbers of
Ans. : (D)  cooks 複數可數名詞,其餘三者後面所加皆為不可數名詞。

24. keep +N + from + N / Ving  使...無法...
from的意思是「免於、防止、遠離、無法」。其他相似用法有:
stop from prevent fromprotect fromdissuade fromdeter from hinder from
prohibit from
Ex:
It is natural that parents will try hard to prevent their kids from being hurt.

25. percent of + N 百分比的用法
百分比的主詞是以分數後方的名詞為準,主詞跟動詞的要有一致性,須注意是否為可數不可數,單數或複數。
Ex:
More than thirty-five percent of the graduates have found no job during the economic
recession. (economic recession 經濟大蕭條)
Forty percent of the fresh water is saved to prepare for a drought.(water不可數)

26. S end up + N/Ving 結果是... ...收場
通常會在後方加上with或是in,或是end up +Ving
Ex:
Chances are likely  that the project may end up in failure.
Being addicted to work too much, Sean ended up losing his health.

27. Ving / p.p ... , S+ V ... 分詞構句
在文法上,兩個句子需要連接詞做連接。而分詞構句則是省略連接詞與相同主詞,以現在分詞或過去分詞代替簡化句型
Ex:
Though Jimmy wrote numbers of novels, he decided not to publish any of them.
= Writing numbers of novels, Jimmy decided not to publish any of them.
Hit by a speedy car, the young motorcyclist died on the scene.
(因為是被撞,所以要用被動過去分詞hit,三態hit-hit-hit)
考克漏字時看到考時態或是有 Ving 時,先分析整個句子的結構,有沒有逗號、連接詞等。逗號後沒接連接詞是考慮Vingp.p的用法,有連接詞則看前一句的時態為何

28. S1 +Ving /p.p ... , S2 + V ...  獨立分詞構句
獨立分詞構句與上述的分詞構句不同之處為:原本的前後兩句之主詞不同,因此兩個主詞皆保留以表文意
Ex:
When my brother turned on the TV, his boredom suddenly disappeared.
=My brother turning on the TV, his boredom suddenly disappeared.
This situation being still unclear, you should not jump to conclusions.
=Since the situation is still unclear, you should not jump to conclusions.
兩個完整的句子必須有連接詞連接,若沒有則使用分詞構句。若前後主詞不同則保留原主詞照寫。

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29. when / while / if / though + Ving + p.p  保留連接詞的分詞構句
通常為保持句意的清楚而保留連接詞,但用法仍同27.的原理。
Ex:
When hearing about the death of Steve Jobs,the legendary Apple co-founder, most
people felt shocked and sad.
If scolded(被斥責 p.p)by the boss, you can tell me how you feel.

30. Only when S +V ... 只有當...
此一句型之後的子句必須使用倒裝句。英文直述句基本結構為S+V倒裝句則必須將助動詞或be動詞移到主詞
前方,這個我們在之前的否定副詞倒裝談過。除了Only when 外,Only where, Only if, Only then,
Only by +Ving等皆可套用此句型:
Only + [副詞子句 / 副詞片語 / 副詞 / 介系詞片語] + [助動詞 + S + V/be V + S /has,have,had +S +p.p]
Ex:
Only when you are determined to face what you are scared of can you understand your
true self.
Only if you lose what you have can you know what you really want.

31. used to V/ be used to Ving 曾經、過去習慣或狀況/習慣於
在這邊推薦一個通用的: be used to Ving = be accustomed to Ving。此兩種句型也容易與be used
to V(被用來...)做比較,作答根據文意時請千萬要小心。
Ex:
She used to live in this remote village, but now she lives in an urban area.
This CEO is used to jogging at dawn to start each day.

32.
one , the other (兩者) 一個,另一個
one, another, the other (三者) 一個,另一個,最後一個
注意前後文是否有表明個數,兩者之間必須要有連接詞或分號手是兩隻手,拜託一定要兩者的
Ex:
Yesterday was not my day. One of my hands was badly bruised and the other was cut
by a pocket knife.(昨天真是倒楣。一隻手嚴重瘀青,另外一隻手則被摺疊小刀割傷。)
My father is so picky about fruits that he only eats three kinds of them. One is apple,
another is watermelon, and the other is guava.

33. S + look / sound / smell / taste / feel + adj. / like N ////感覺起來.......
此類動詞為不及物連綴動詞(中文解釋為「...起來」),句型結構為S +Vi +SC(主詞補語),此處的adj.
like N 即為SC。前面提到的感官動詞句型結構為S + Vt +O +OC (受詞補語)。用法不同請勿搞混。
Ex:
This kind of yogurt smells like grapefruit.
This plan sounds perfect but costly(昂貴的 adj.). (perfectly是錯的不要選)

34. It is said / believed / reported / expected / rumored that S + V... 據說/相信/報導/期待/
...
It 為虛主詞,真正的主詞是that 之後的子句。請用被動用法。
Ex:
It is rumored that this supermodel will marry an oil tycoon(石油大亨)next month.

35. If S + V ..., S+ will / can / may + V ... 條件句
表示現在或未來可能發生的事情If 子句的動詞為現在式主要子句的動詞為未來式。條件句的if 句型跟假設語氣的if 句型不同。假設語氣與事實相反,描述之事未來或現在也不會發生,所以不會使用現在式。之後再針對假設語氣作出解釋。
Ex:
If it rains tomorrow,the school will cancel the field trip.
If you are late again, I think you will be disciplined(處分).

36. those who ...的人
可以取代為people who they who,請注意省略用法。
Ex:
The government should take care of those (who are) in need.
This humanitarian organization was founded to help those (who are) underprivileged
in our society.

37.
  make sure (that) + S +V 確定...
=make sure of +N / Ving
除了這兩個外,相似的句法也有: be afraid that / of , be aware that /of , insist that /on等。
Ex:
You'd better make sure of our hotel reservation in New York.
= You'd better make sure (that) we have reserved the hotel in New York.
When I was in elementary school, my mother always insisted that I should pack my
book bag before going to bed.
= When I was in elementary school, my mother always insisted on packing my book bag
myself before I go to bed.

38. the + adj. 某種特定的人或事
通常當成複數集合名詞
Ex:
It's hard to believe that the handicapped are still discriminated against in our society.
(難以置信的是,身障人士至今仍舊在我們所處的社會裡遭到歧視。)
After reading some books about household budget-control, I finally know why the rich
are rich.

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39. as if / as though 好像,彷彿
好像、彷彿之事可能並非事實,因此句型可用假設語氣。若事情有可能發生,則使用現在式
Ex:
The little girl looks as if she is going to cry. (可能真的會發生)
He looked scared, as though he had seen Death.

40. apart from / aside from 除了...之外
中文的「除了」有兩種涵義:包含與不包含。英文中的「包含」使用besides 和 in addition to;「不包
」則使用except (for)other thanexcluding等。而apart from aside from 和中文相同,可
表示兩種涵義,須從上下文判斷。
Ex:
Apart from the biology teacher, every student is in the lab, so they have to do the
experiment on their own.
( 除了生物老師之外,每位學生都在實驗室哩,所以他們只好靠自己做實驗了。)
從上下文可知老師並不包含在實驗室人員中,此處apart from = except (for)

41. While S + V ..., S + V... ...的時候
while為從屬連接詞,連接兩個同時間發生的情況,也常用來呈現相同或相反的狀態
Ex:
While my brother was sleeping, I was struggling for my approaching simulation test.
While some swimming pools have lifeguards,others don't.

42. to + Ving/  N     to介系詞之常用片語
look forward to (期待) / become adapted to (適應) / be devoted to (致力) / lead to (導致) /
object to (反對) / when it comes to (說到),這些常用片語的to均是介系詞。
Ex:
All the kids look forward to attending the annual charity bazaar(慈善會) so much.
The opposition party objects to building the dam.

43. with + O + OC 表附加狀態
with有多種意思,如因為、隨著。此處with 引導某附加狀態或動作OC(受詞補語)則用來描述O(受詞)
。可能的OC包含adj. 分詞構句(主動用Ving、被動用p.p)介系詞片語(on the desk) to V等。
Ex:
The little girl ran to her mother with her hair blowing in the wind.
小女孩跑向媽媽,而她的頭髮在空中飛揚(頭髮飛揚使用主動)
My great grandmother sat in the armchair with her eyes closed(adj.).

44. even if / even though 即使/雖然
此兩片語分別與if though 用法類似,但語氣較為強烈even if 會與假設語氣連用(if 相同)even
though用法則與 although 相同
Ex:
Even though /Although this customer was overly picky, the salesman treated him with
patience.

45. Although / Though / Even though S +V 雖然
44.可做比較。
Ex:
Even though / Although he is a millionaire, he works hard every day.

46. Despite / In spite of + N, ... 儘管
despite為介系詞,in spite of 為介系詞片語,後方必須接名詞如接子句使用the fact + that S + V
(that 子句當 the fact 的同位語)regardless of + N 也有不管、儘管之意。
例句請參考轉折語法20.

47.
  Because S  + V..., S + V ...
=Because of + N ..., S + V...
在兩種句型轉換時,需將because S + V 動詞轉換成 because of 相對應的名詞或名詞片語
because of 意義相近的片語有:on account of as a result of due to owing to thank
to(由於;幸虧)等。
Ex:
Because he was ill,he didn't go to the class reunion yesterday.
=Because of his illness,he didn't go to the class reunion yesterday.

48. If + S + were /Ved ..., S + [would/ could / should /might] + V... 與現在事實相反的假設語氣
原先句型為現在式,但假設語氣非事實,因此時態往回推成過去式表示為假。
if 子句中的be動詞無論單複數與人稱皆使用were
Ex:
If I were you, I would be an independent traveler.
If John had adriver's license now, he could drive to school.

49.   If+ S + had + p.p ..., S +[would / could / should /might] + have + p.p. ... 與過去事實相反的
假設語氣
原先句型為過去式,但假設語氣非事實,因此時態往回推成過去的過去表示為假,即過去完成式。要特別注意
48.之間的差異。
Ex:
If I had been careful while driving then, I wouldn't have had such a serious car crash.
If Father had gotten the physical exam one year ago, he could have had a chance to
live longer.

50. It is time (that) S + Ved 該是...的時候
要注意that  子句要用過去式動詞,因為這是一種類似與現在事實相反的假設語氣。
Ex:
It is time that the government kept the promises.

51. would rather V ... than V 寧可...不要
亦可寫成 would V rather than V = prefer to V rather than V = prefer N /Ving to N/Ving
Ex:
Steven would rather be a volunteer in Northern Thailand  than travel with his friends in
Europe.
=Steven would be a volunteer in Northern Thailand rather than travel with his friends in
Europe.
=Steven prefer to be a volunteer in Northern Thailand rather than travel with his
friends in Europe.
= Steven prefer being a volunteer in Northern Thailand to traveling with his
friends in Europe.

52. V ... /Don't V .... 祈使句/否定祈使句
祈使句中被省略的主詞為You,可表示命令、請求、勸告、警告等意思,後方子句通常用andor當連接詞
Ex:
Don't stay up , or you may have a risk of heart disease.

53. not ... (.) but ... 不是...而是...
此句型中,not but 的後方所連接的是兩個對等的結構
Ex:
True friendship is not a strong attachment but mutual respect and trust.
Your value depends not on what you have but on what you give.

54. no / not / never ... unless ... 除非...否則不...
unless為連接詞
Ex:
You can't eat my hand-made cookies unless you come back before 8:00 p.m.

1/17

55. that S + V that 引導的名詞子句
名詞子句有三種:
(1)that所引導的名詞子句
(2)疑問句所引導的名詞子句
(3)whether / if 所引導的名詞子句
名詞子句可以放的位置有很多種,包含主詞、受詞、同位語、補語等。
Ex:
(1) My grandfather always tells us (that) living now and here is the best medicine.
=> That 引導的名詞子句只有放在受詞位置時可以省略
(1) That the latest smartphone hit the marketyesterday has interested 3C buyers.
=> That為主詞引導的名詞子句,不可省略
(2) What the coach cared about was theattitude the whole team should have.
=> who / what / where / when / which S + V 疑問詞所引導的名詞子句,語序不倒裝(S + V)
(2) The doctor wanted to know when Istarted coughing.
=> 若是出在克漏字,則須思考上下文意來選擇最適當的疑問詞。
(3) The prince really didn't know whether/if Cinderella would appear again.
=> whether 引導的名詞子句,可以與 if 做替換,但較嚴謹的文法中若是放句首則不宜替換
(3) Whether it is sunny or rainy, this mountaineerattempts to reach the peak.
=> whether 引導的副詞子句此處要解釋為「無論」,此時 if 不可跟 whether 替換

56. indirect questions 間接子句
由直接問具改為間接子句,須注意字詞的排序。
Ex:
What time is it? (直接問句) => Doyou know what time it is? (間接問句)
This archaeologist is researching how theEgyptians got started making mummies.
=> 若是考在克漏字,先判斷文意後再思考排列順序,已選出最恰當選項。

57. Needless to say, S + V 不用說...
也可改為: It goes without saying that S + V
文章中常會有一些副詞片語以表達感覺或立場,像是sad to say, strange to say等,可以多學並應用於作
文上。
Ex:
Needless to say, all the kids expect gifts for the coming Christmas.

58. S + have / has an influence / impact / effect on sb / sth ...有影響
注意此處的介系詞用法。
Ex:
It is said that season change has an influence on asthma symptoms.

59. as far as ... be concerned ...而言
注意一下此處的被動式用法。
Ex:
As far as the good crisis is concerned, the developed countries should adopt better
strategies.

60. by the time S + V ... ...時候;在...之前
後頭所接的結構為子句,要與前後文的時態做搭配
Ex:
He had been a worldwide fashion designer by thetime he was 22.

61. There is no use Ving ...沒有用
也可改為: It is no use Ving
Ex:
There is no use crying over spilt milk. (覆水難收。)

1/18

62. adj.-er / adv.-er than ... 比較級
概分比較級的形成通常是以音節來分,音節較少(兩音節以下)直接在字尾+er音節較長(兩音節以上)在前方加
more less。兩音節單字兩種變化皆有可能,看單字是給什麼就是什麼。請注意一些不規則的變化,
如:good ,well => better bad => worse。修飾比較級是用:much / far / even / still / a great
deal 等。不能用very / many / more
Ex:
Since Steven is more interested in physics, the scores are much higher than those of
the other subjects.
Mrs. Sue is more than a boss to me; actually, she is my mentor.
=> more than 連用表示「不只」、「多於」

63. the adj.-est / adv.-est ... (+everto V / of / among / in ...) 最高級
最高級的形成,音節較少單字直接加est音節較多單字在前方加上most,不管何種形成方式,前方都必須加
上冠詞the。因為最高級是在一個範圍內比較,所以有時會以in, of, among等構成之片語來界定範圍
Ex:
It is said that Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was the most intelligent musician in history.

64. result in / result from 導致/起因於
result in 同義:contribute to / lead to / give rise to / bring about / cause
result from 同義:come from / be a result of / be caused by
Ex:
Is it possible that attention deficienthyperactivity disorder results from nutritional
deficiency?
His extraordinary career results from his positive attitude and persistence.

65. grab sb by the arm 拉某人的手臂
grab / seize / grasp / hold sb by the + 身體部位
pat / hit / punch / strike / kick sb on / in the + 身體部位
Ex:
The cop grabbed the housebreaker by the arm.
The loving mother patted her little son on the head.

66. The adj.-er / adv.-er ... , the adj.-er / adv.-er ......
兩個句子用逗點隔開,不需任何連接詞
Ex:
The more you have, the more you want.

67. the study / research suggests that... 據研究顯示
除了suggest以外,可以加的動詞有:indicate, show, say, reveal, demonstrate,conclude等。
Ex:
The statistics indicate that the economy will improve soon.
The research reveals that exercising helps ease depression.

68. for fear that 以免
也可以寫成 lest S should / might V
Ex:
The government suggests that all thenewborn babies should be vaccinated for fear
that they could catch the contagiousdiseases.
When my grandpa took a hike in themountains, he would put a raincoat in his
backpack lest it rain.

1/19

69. be + p.p. 被動語態

現在式 過去式 未來式
簡單式 am / is /are + p.p. was / were + p.p. will be + p.p.
is / are
going to be + p.p.
完成式 have / has been + p.p. had been + p.p. will have been + p.p.
進行式 am / is / are being + p.p. was / were being + p.p.


     
被動語態表示客觀、委婉之意,主被動的轉換亦呈現強調重點之變化
Ex:
All the students should hand in the assignment nextMonday. (重點在學生)
The assignment should be handed in next Monday. (重點在作業)

70. has / have / had been +p.p.  完成被動
由上述的表格可以知道其結構,但我們之後兩個句型都會以例句去做更多的了解跟練習。
Ex:
All the tickets to the concert held onNew Year's Eve have been sold out.
We have understood through the weather forecast that therewill be a strong typhoon
this weekend.

71. be being + p.p. 進行被動
完成被動中的be been ,而進行被動being
Ex:
All the pizzas are being baked in the brick oven.
The experiment is being conducted to prove the drug may cause kidney failure.

72. avoid + Ving 避免
有些動詞是必須在其後加Ving,如:deny, enjoy, finish , keep , mind , practice , postpone(延期) , quit , risk, spend time , waste time 等。
Ex:
You should avoid driving after drinking.
In the court, the accused denied having seen the accuser before.

73. once ... 一旦,曾經,一次
要注意是連接詞還是副詞,用法跟文意都是不相同的。
adv. 一次,曾經 / conj. 一旦
Ex:
This celebrated novelist once lived a miserable life. (adv.)
Once you sign the contract, you are not a freelancer anymore. (conj.)

74. S +  be located /situated + in / on / at ... 位於...
sit / lie / stand 使用主動語態表達所在地,主詞須為建築物或地點
Ex:
The headquarters of the textile company are located on Third Avenue.
The world-wide famous cultural remains lie in the north of the capital.

75. that's how / why S + V 那就是...的方式/原因
此處how本身有the way(方法)之意why則有the reason(理由)之意,所以寫法上會將其省略,直接寫成
上述的句型即可。
Ex:
That's why the aborigines celebrate their harvest festival.
Maybe you don't get used to it, but that's how we solve the problems.

76. ... times as + adj. (+N) / adv. +as ... ...幾倍
倍數比較句型有下列三種:倍數 + as adj. (+N) + as ... / 倍數 + 比較級 + than ... / 倍數 + the + N +
of...
Ex:
Our new house is four times as big as the old one.
= Our new house is four times bigger than the old one.
= Our new house is four times the size of the old one.

77. S must + V 表對現在事實肯定之推測
S must + have p.p. 表示對過去的肯定推測,助動詞可依文意而換為may / could / should / might等。
Ex:
Kevin is absent today. I guess he must be ill.
Tim hasn't showed up, and I think she must have overslept.

78. The former ... the latter ... 前者... ,後者...
此處的latter為人或事的次序先後並非表示時間的先後(later)
Ex:
Tea and orange juice are the only two drinks served in the afternoon. The former is 90
NT dollars and the latter is 70 NT dollars.




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